The hardline Islamist Taliban celebrated their total return to power on Tuesday with gunfire and diplomacy, after the last US troops flew out of Afghanistan to end two decades of war.
The United States' longest military conflict drew to a close on Monday night when its forces abandoned Kabul's airport, where it had overseen a frenzied airlift that saw more than 123,000 people flee.
Taliban fighters then quickly swept into the airport and fired weapons into the sky across the city in jubilation -- an astonishing return after US forces invaded in 2001 and toppled them for supporting Al-Qaeda.
"Congratulations to Afghanistan... this victory belongs to us all," Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid told reporters hours later on the runway of the airport.
Mujahid said the Taliban's victory was a "lesson for other invaders".
Many Afghans are terrified of a repeat of the Taliban's initial rule from 1996-2001, which was infamous for their treatment of girls and women, as well as a brutal justice system.
However the Taliban have repeatedly promised a more tolerant and open brand of rule compared with their first stint in power, and Mujahid continued that theme.
"We want to have good relations with the US and the world. We welcome good diplomatic relations with them all," he said.
Mujahid also insisted Taliban security forces would "be gentle and nice".
Fawzia Koofi, a rights activist and former negotiator for the ousted government who has twice survived assassination attempts, appealed to the Taliban to include all Afghans as they turn to governing the country.
"Our wealth is our young girls and boys," she wrote. "Taliban, hear us out: we must rebuild together! This land belongs to all of us."
- Terror threat -
The withdrawal came just before the August 31 deadline set by President Joe Biden to end the war -- one that claimed the lives of more than tens of thousands of Afghans and over 2,400 American service members.
The slightly early finish followed a threat from the regional offshoot of the Islamic State group, rivals of the Taliban, to attack the US forces at the airport.
Thirteen US troops were among more than 100 people killed when an IS suicide bomber late last week attacked the perimeter of the airport, where desperate Afghans had massed in the hope of getting on board an evacuation flight.
The US-led airlift began as the Taliban completed an astonishing rout of government forces around the country and reached the capital on August 14.
Their victory came after Biden withdrew nearly all American troops, then was forced to send back about 6,000 more to conduct the airlift.
Biden said he would address the nation on Tuesday in Washington, as his critics continued to savage him for his handling of the withdrawal.
"We can't fight endless wars, but the scope & consequence of Biden's failure here is staggering," Republican Senator Rick Scott said.
Biden's top diplomat, Secretary of State Antony Blinken, was able to offer little more than stern words for the Taliban.
"Any legitimacy and any support will have to be earned," Blinken said, as he announced the United States had suspended its diplomatic presence in Kabul and shifted its operations to Qatar.
- Airport uncertainty -
All eyes will now turn to how the Taliban handle their first few days with sole authority over the country, with a sharp focus on whether they will allow free departure for those wanting to leave -- including some foreigners.
Blinken said a small number of US citizens remained in the country -- "under 200" but likely closer to just 100.
Many thousands of Afghans who had worked with the US-backed government over the years and fear retribution also want to get out.
Western allies have voiced heartbreak in recent days that not all Afghans who wanted to flee could get on the evacuation flights.
The UN Security Council adopted a resolution Monday, requiring the Taliban to honor a commitment to let people freely leave Afghanistan in the days ahead, and to grant access to the UN and other aid agencies.
Talks are ongoing as to who will now run Kabul airport.
The Taliban have asked Turkey to handle logistics while they maintain control of security, but President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has not yet accepted that offer.
- Civilian deaths -
The regional Islamic State-Khorasan (IS-K) group which claimed the suicide bomb attack had posed the biggest threat to the withdrawal.
On Monday, it also claimed to have fired six rockets at the airport. A Taliban official said the attack was intercepted by the airport's missile defense systems.
In an echo of the tragedies of civilian deaths that plagued the war and cost the Americans local support, a US air strike in Kabul targeting what it said was an IS car bomb on the weekend appeared to have killed children.
Members of one family told AFP they believed a fatal error had been made, and that 10 members of the same family were killed.
"My brother and his four children were killed. I lost my small daughter... nephews and nieces," Aimal Ahmadi told AFP.